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Old 04-09-2022, 08:55 PM   #223
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M. Meško, Pecheneg Groups in the Balkans (ca. 1053-1091) according to the Byzantine Sources. In: The Steppe Lands and the World Beyond Them. Studies in Honor of Victor Spinei on his 70th Birthday, edited by Florin Curta and Bogdan-Petru Maleon. Iaşi 2013, p. 179-205


Page 182 of the article above:
- According to Scylitzes' account the names of major Pecheneg leaders were as follows: Soultzou, Selte, Karaman, Kataleim ("probably chiefs of four different Pecheneg tribes").
- Selte settled with his tribe the environs of Lovitzos (present-day Lovech in Bulgaria) on the Osmos/Osam River. The environs of Lovech had been occupied/settled since 1048/1049.
- Other Pechenegs established their camps in the region close to former Bulgarian capitals at Pliska and Preslav.

Page 183:
- The Pechenegs reached a 30-year peace with the exhausted and dispirited "Byzantines", according to which the Pechenegs were allowed to occupy Paradounavon (or Paristrion) as allies under the loose control of the Byzantine administration in the Constantinople.

Page 185:
- In the author's opinion, "as many as 7 Pecheneg tribes, if not more, may have been left in Walachia and southern Moldavia".

Page 186:
- Scylitzes apparently mentions "800,000 Pechenegs entering Paristrion in 1046/1047".

Page 190:
- The "Byzantines" seem to have been ready to recognize tacitly the existence of an independent Paristrion, in order to deal with more pressing problems.

Page 192:
- Around/after 1078: "Unexpected arrival of more nomad settlers into Paristrion..."

Page 195:
- In the spring of 1087 Salomon and his small retinue of warriors joined Tzelgu and his Pechenegs in an all-out attack on the "Byzantine" Balkans.

Page 197:
- There were probably other areas of settlement, such as that of Selte in the envions of Lovech and river Osam, probably around Dristra (= Silistra), as well as in northern Dobrudja.

Page 203:
- The Pechenegs raided deeply into "Byzantine" territories... The Pecheneg flood seemed unstoppable and nomads roamed freely in Thrace and in Macedonia.

Page 205:
- The author asserts that the unprecedented Pecheneg invasion of "Byzantine" Thrace and Macedonia in 1088-1091 was in fact a migratory movement of the desperate Pechenegs in the Balkans fleeing the Cumans.
- The Pecheneg groups in the Balkans were most likely destroyed one by one by the advancing Cumans, according to the author, with Pechenegs being up getting sold into slavery, while others were recruited by the "Byzantine" army.

This was the area/theme of Paristrion:

"Paristrion (Greek: Παρίστριον, lit. 'beside the Ister'), or Paradounabon/Paradounabis (αραδούναβον / Παραδούναβις), which is preferred in official documents, was a Byzantine province covering the southern bank of the Lower Danube (Moesia Inferior) in the 11th and 12th centuries."
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