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Old 01-06-2009, 09:18 AM   #3
Delodephius
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I heard about the hypothesis that the word "car" [tsar] is older and did not come down to Slavonic from the Caesar or Kesar, that it is of an older IE origin and in fact it originates from the same root that forms a part of the very name Caesar. I think it meant "head", as in leader or ruler. In Sanskrit head is "śir", in English we have a word "sir", and in Slavonic "car"- Tzar. It also reminds of the Sanskrit word for the Sun - "sūrya" and in Slavonic "zora", as the Sun was the highest authority and deity in the ancient world it could be connected to the meaning of "emperor" or the highest of human authorities.

Similarly, it is today believe that the Slavonic word for king - kral, korol, kralj, krľ, etc. derives from the name of Charlemagne - Karl, in English Charles. But I think it could be of a much older origin deriving from something like the root *kar - "to rule", "to smite". There are no words for a ruler or king in any Slavic language that derive from the IE root *h₃reǵ- (Lat. regere, Gk. ὀρέγω (oregō), Eng. riht/right, Gm. reht/recht, ON rttr, Goth. raihts, Thrac. rhesus, Toch. rk/rk, Arm. arcvi/ardzvi;
*H₃rēǵ-(H₃n-) / "ruler, king": Skr. राजन् (rājan), Oscan regaturei, Lat. rēx, Gaul. rīx, Ir. rg/rgh, Welsh rhi, Av. raz, Pers. rahst, Alb. radh), unless borrowed, but I couldn't find anything on *kar, so I won't go any further on that.
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